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Single-sex education can be influential in capitalizing on the positive aspects and mitigating some of the more negative aspects of peer influences. In one of the first in-depth empirical studies on all-female computer science courses in secondary school, Crombie et al.

All-female environments also gave girls more confidence than mixed-sex classes, and the girls were more vocal than in other classes. Girls from all-female courses reported more academic interests in computer science or potential to pursue a computing career Crombie et al.

This empire of images impacts our ideas and ideals in many arenas, including whom we see as qualified for computing work when we see certain kinds of people doing certain kinds of jobs Wolkowitz, Past research has investigated the way in which computing and technology are portrayed in a variety of media texts e.

In what follows, we take a look at some more recent research in this area. Media representations still largely portray stereotypes but progress has been made in portrayals of other occupations, showcasing the power of media to alter these perceptions. More — doctors, lawyers. Additionally, media images often still present the stereotype of computer professionals as geeks without social skills doing boring and solitary jobs Klawe, However, some evidence suggests that at least some girls also If you knew more actively join in efforts to reclaim the geek image e.

Additional research suggests that girls of color are less affected by want to do it. Interestingly, more progress has been made in portrayals of other occupations. One survey of U. This hints at the power of popular culture to raise awareness and influence youth perceptions about occupations.

And, when it comes to computing careers, interesting but complicated developments are on the horizon and worth paying close attention to. Few movies or prime time television shows take place in a technology setting and even fewer have a powerful female lead character Clayton, et al. Clayton et al. An eerily similar pattern emerges in the character of Abby Sciuto, the female character in a computing role in another crime drama, NCIS. In 28 girls in IT: The Facts www.

At the same time, it is curious that the two leading female technical characters on prime time television would be portrayed in such similar ways. While in the past boys spent more time gaming, recent create.

Because teen girl, of this recent trend, games are also seen by many as a particularly promising way of making Indianapolis, IN computing and computer science classes more relevant for youth and involving them early GSRI, in actual computing activities e.

This potential is complicated, however, by the fact that historically games have been primarily made by men and for male audiences. Also, these features tend to foster more online communities where boys gain more advanced skill interacting and exchanging knowledge more frequently with other players Hayes, Nonetheless some of these trends are changing, as girls have begun to start gaming in equal number to boys, and evidence does suggest that gaming can be an engaging way to introduce computing for girls Denner, ; Hayes, , see the Promising Programs section on Gaming, p 58, for more information.

Boys are more likely to say that an interest in gaming is a reason for choosing a computing career. Approximately boys chose gaming, whereas only 75 girls did the same. The top reason girls would choose a CS major was a desire to use CS in another field. Some initial research, however, does provide support for the fact that programs that use gaming to increase girls computing knowledge and interest in future careers do have positive effects e.

In order to better understand the links between gaming, popular culture representations, and computing education and careers, more research is needed into the actual gaming practices of girls and how they learn computer science concepts through these practices Denner, Here we summarize and variation between the highlight the most consistent and well-supported findings.

These beliefs are influenced by the social and structural factors discussed above. Furthermore, because many studies focus on differences between boys and girls, the significant similarities are often glossed over. A number of recent studies have found that with similar training and experience, girls and boys perform in computer technology at comparable levels, showing no innate reason boys would be better at technology Barron, ; Bruckman et al.

It is also important to remember, but is rarely discussed, that while girls and boys sometimes differ when it comes to their perceptions, interests, and career decisions, variation within sex is often greater than variation between the sexes. As we have touched on earlier, myriad past and recent studies have found that girls either have very limited knowledge or inaccurate perceptions of what IT professionals do. Generally, girls perceive IT careers as having little or no interaction with others and that IT workers are obsessed with computers e.

Those students who thought they had an idea thought CS majors learn programming. Another study of junior girls in top-level math classes found that a lack of knowledge about computer science and computing careers were top reasons for not choosing a CS major Olivieri, Seventy-two percent of the students believed that the computer scientist would remain at a computer while either working or playing video games.

The gender breakdown for this response is a bit surprising and merits further programming, I think investigation, especially as this was a camp that had a high percentage of African American of people like my and Hispanic students. Always sitting at the laptops, looking at all these different Girls and boys still perceive computing to be a largely masculine field. In a study websites, just where 6th and 8th graders were asked to close their eyes and portray someone who working a lot. In another study, U.

In general, girls perceived occupations as being more gender-segregated than did males, but boys tended to see occupations as more gender-stereotyped than girls. Both girls and boys preferred jobs that they saw as stereotypically gender-appropriate and dominated by their own sex.

Interest varies among girls of different ethnicities and among girls already interested in science. I like building things or 56 58 67 putting things together. I like to understand how 57 57 64 things are built. Reprinted with permission of GSRI.

Similarly, a longitudinal study of 1, adolescents also found that African American girls were more likely than White girls to consider IT careers Zarrett et al.

Interestingly, they also found that African American girls with plans to attain higher levels of education had less interest in IT careers than African American girls with plans to attain lower levels of education.

Interest in STEM or computing does not necessarily translate into interest in a career in these fields. However, as noted above, increased interest does not always translate to intention to persist. This seems partly due to competing interests in other fields. Future research would do well to tease out what is meant by interest and the differences in kind and degree of interest, as well as helping advance understanding in how these relate to confidence, experience, and reasons for choosing a computing career.

We now take a closer look at some of the research related to these last three factors: confidence, experience, and reasons for choosing a career. The exact interactions between experience, confidence, interest, and plans to persist in computing, however, are not well understood.

More research is needed to tease out these variations in findings and also to better understand how these factors interact in terms of intersections of race, gender, class, and sexuality.

Girls express less confidence and rate their ability lower than boys, even when actual achievement levels are similar. This continues to be one of the most consistent findings when it comes to the relationship between gender, confidence, and computing.

Programming achievement is predicted by programming experience rather than gender; in other words, when looking at students with equal levels of programming experience, gender differences in achievement 34 girls in IT: The Facts www. However, girls often still assess their own abilities lower than do boys with similar levels of experience Crombie, ; Guzdial, et al.

In one particularly interesting study, albeit with undergraduate students, Beyer and colleagues found that female CS majors had less computer confidence than did male non-majors. A wealth of research has illustrated that these fears and Recognizing anxieties drastically reduce feelings of competence and trust, and can negatively affect Stereotype performance, confidence, and risk-taking behavior Aronson et al. Recognizing stereotype threat is important; otherwise educators, peers, parents, and others might incorrectly assume that lack of confidence or reduced performance are the result of personal characteristics of girls themselves.

This will leave the conditions that create stereotype threat unaddressed, ensuring that these girls are not able to live up to their full potential and most likely will leave or never choose to pursue computing. Men and women tend to have different narratives about how they came to be in a computing career.

Women, however, describe having come by their careers through luck, chance, or serendipitous events, even when their career paths had been similar to those of men. These differences may stem from male and female differences in levels of confidence, as well as related effects of stereotype threat.

This can give girls or women the impression that to be successful in a computing career you have to have been born into it or have some kind of innate ability AAUW, Encouragement goes a long way toward mitigating differences in levels of self-confidence and perceived ability. This was also true for Black and Hispanic students Guzdial, et al.

In a survey of students in calculus and pre-calculus classes in nine California and Arizona schools, Carter found that the top reason boys chose a CS major was interest in computer games, but the top reason girls chose a CS major was desire to use CS in another field.

She also found, however, that the top reasons for not choosing a CS major for both genders were lack of desire to sit in front of a computer all day and already having chosen another major. Future salary was not a significant influence on choice to study CS for either boys or girls. Another survey of 1, introductory computer science students Guzdial et al. At the end of the day, males and females actually both ranked communal characteristics as the most important characteristics of their desired job.

We now turn to look at promising practices for addressing these barriers. Section Snapshot This section is divided into two parts: 1 Recommendations and links to practical resources for implementing change, organized by change agent, and 2 A glance at promising programs that are implementing these kinds of changes.

What can other educators do? Reform requires multiple kinds of change agents taking a multi-faceted approach. The following model aims to depict the keys areas where change is needed and who can effect this change. The outer shapes surrounding the center indicate the key areas where change is needed in order to make existing conditions around gender and computing more inclusive for girls and youth of color.

In the next few sections, we offer tips or recommendations from existing research, as well as links to practical resources for implementing these recommendations. These recommendations and resources are categorized by the people or organizations most likely to be able to implement them. Some of these tips are logical solutions arising out of the research on known barriers discussed in Section 2, while others also have evaluative evidence of success. In the case of the latter, we note what these successes have been.

In the final section, we offer a glimpse of promising programs that simultaneously address multiple barriers and have positive evaluative evidence. Since there is some overlap in some of these recommendations, we begin with a set of recommendations that almost anyone looking to make change might be able to do. Additional talking points for the importance of computing education are available at www. Talking points for why girls should consider a career in computing are also available at www.

In making this case, be sure to distinguish between computer literacy and computer science. Also, visit www. Resources on this website also show how others have used this data. Be sure to point out the ways that computing can be used in a variety of fields to solve important problems. Highlight that these jobs are well-paying and likely to be quite plentiful.

Visit www. Make girls aware of this phenomenon; recognizing it is the first step to overcoming it. Also remind girls that intelligence and technical ability are not innate but that they are like muscles that can be developed over time.

A number of important interventions for reducing stereotype threat have been found to be successful. For more information on these strategies or on stereotype threat in general, see www. Never underestimate the power of this simple effort.

However, these are often based on the fact that some children have simply had more experience with computing than others. This is particularly true for girls of color and girls who come from underresourced areas Cunningham, ; Margolis et al. As appropriate, strike up informal conversations with youth and others about media portrayals regarding technology and technology professionals.

What Can Parents and Families Do? As discussed in Section 2, quite a bit of research shows the importance of early exposure to technology and computing, and familial encouragement to pursue these interests e.

Encourage your daughters or the young women in your lives to take computing classes. Also look for extracurricular computing opportunities in your community or beyond see Promising Programs section on page Be sure to talk about how computing is relevant in a number of different areas, particularly as it relates to things the young women you know may be interested in. Look for opportunities where your children can see girls and women participating and successful in technology. See www.

When watching television shows, reading magazines, or coming across advertisements related to technology, strike up informal conversations with children about the kinds of representations they are seeing. Ask for their opinions about these representations and offer your own. Remember that girls often know very little about or have significant misconceptions about technical careers. Make them aware of the benefits of these careers. Talking points for having these conversations with young women are available at www.

Talking points for making this argument are available at www. This is important for making CS an established part of the curriculum. For more information girls individually in on CS curriculum standards, see the curriculum section of the CSTA website. I also put up posters.

Several range of teachers. Both computer science and teacher education faculty can offer said they would give professional development for teachers who wish to learn about computing and how computing a try, they might incorporate computing lessons into their classrooms.

These workshops and several actually are useful for math, science, and CS teachers but also can be useful for art, music, joined my robotics language arts, social science, and other kinds of teachers who may wish to incorporate team! Tapestry workshop Likewise, Agentsheets www. Find out how you can partner with these kinds of programs or use lessons learned from them to start similar professional development on your campus.

Having many mentors and individuals supporting and encouraging participation can help girls increase interest in computing. Also, remember that mentoring does not only have to take place in person. Telementoring or e-mentoring can be an effective method to bring mentors or role models to girls who may not have any locally Cozza, Hosting these events on college campuses provides access to resources that local schools do not always have and also allows many girls and other students to experience a college campus for the first time.

Be sure that your department has created an inclusive and supportive culture and employs inclusive pedagogies in the computing classroom. For a comprehensive guide to implementing these practices in higher education see www. See the Conclusion and Future Research section on page 62 for other areas where future research is needed. Initiate research that focuses more on the social construction of gender, and how gender organizes occupations, fields, disciplines, and so forth.

Diversity of voices and experiences will help not only in the production of richer research but also a richer U. Translate your research into accessible findings and use these to help support and encourage campus programming for increasing diversity in computer science and IT courses, clubs, and other STEM-related groups.

To help make this case, visit www. These data also are presented by congressional district, specifically for state and national legislators. In making this case, be sure to distinguish between computer literacy and computer science, ensuring that policies encourage practices that involve youth in creating not just using technology. This simple change would help establish computing courses as core curriculum courses and would make it easier and more valuable for students to enroll in these courses.

Formal and informal education have a crucial role to play in addressing the barriers girls are facing in computing. Of course, reform in these contexts is particularly complex and involves multiple people working on multiple levels.

The following diagram illustrates the key areas where reform in education is needed. All of these areas apply to formal education, while only some may apply to specific informal education contexts. You can use this model to identify the areas most relevant for your particular context and to assess which of these areas need the most work. These reforms, of course, are not enough and cannot be made in isolation or without the support of other parts of the system.

Active, targeted recruiting efforts are needed to ensure that girls know about the creative, relevant aspects of computing classes and are encouraged to enroll in them. Administrators and other school district personnel can ensure that school or district policies do not inadvertently discourage students from enrolling in these courses and that teachers have the support and resources necessary to improve curricula and pedagogy.

Administrators should also evaluate courses and keep track of gendered enrollment patterns in computing courses. Making sure counselors know how to accurately advise girls and boys regarding computing courses and careers is also an important part of student support.

In what follows, we provide more detail on recommendations in these different areas and links to practical resources for implementing these recommendations. What Can Other Educators Do? The following recommendations focus on what both computing teachers and teachers of other subjects can do. Actions that are especially for teachers of other subjects — not a as well as other school personnel, such as school librarians — have an icon like computer this next to them.

Actively recruit students into computing and CS courses. Personally invite girls who might be interested but might not think of enrolling in these courses Barker et al. When possible, connect computing to their interests in these other classes. This approach has significantly increased female enrollment in CS courses in a number of schools Goode, Learn more about active recruiting strategies by attending a Tapestry Workshop www.

When describing these courses to girls, highlight how computing can enable them to solve important problems or help make other products and services better. It is, of course, not enough to make these connections during recruitment. These kinds of activities are important for all students, but are especially important for girls when they are a minority in a classroom environment.

Allowing students to choose their own projects also tends to increase interest Marcu et al. More research is needed, however, to understand classes. I talked to exactly how this plays out in computing.

Connecting these activities to future meaningful careers may be one way to bridge this disconnect. Computing and technology teachers can form effective partnerships with other teachers e. This approach can help teach concepts that need to be taught in these classes in innovative ways and also can go a long way toward showing how computing can be used in a variety of contexts and toward a variety of ends.

CT highlights how computer science concepts are used nearly everywhere and how they appear in various problems across many subject areas, making it possible to incorporate CT into all grade levels. By implementing CT across the curriculum and across grade levels, students can experience elements of computer science throughout their school experiences. The CSTA curriculum recommendations include achievable CT standards at every grade level, along with examples of how to incorporate CT into the classroom.

Students can analyze popular texts e. They also can play with these norms and assumptions as they create their own technologies to provide more inclusive options around multiple intersections of identities Denner et al. Pair programming also builds networks of support for girls in solving problems and can reduce the uncertainties and discomfort girls sometimes experience in computing classrooms Denner et al.

In an innovative new twist on pair programming, Dimond and colleagues developed a way to use chatting capabilities to help foster pair or collaborative programming virtually and with other girls in the class — an approach that was well-received by the girls.

How collaborations occur, however, is important as there is variation in effectiveness. Part of this climate is the physical space, which impacts their feelings of belonging, fit, and interest in both in-person and virtual spaces Cheryan et al. This ongoing feedback allows students to more accurately assess their performance without resorting to informal, incorrect other girls doing it metrics such as speed of assignment completion or ability as self-reported by peers around them.

It is also particularly important for providing girls with a more realistic assessment of their abilities, as they often tend to underestimate these. Encourage quieter students to speak up, and encourage students to allow others to finish working before they speak up. Also make sure male and female students take on a variety of roles in the classroom e.

Or, at the very least, keep track of these enrollment patterns in your own classes. Survey your students for feedback on your course. Work with researchers to improve the knowledge base about what works in making computing more engaging for all students and for increasing the participation of girls and other underrepresented groups. A Word About Single-sex Education.

Several studies indicate that single-sex education has positive results for girls. Graduates from all-girls schools are more likely to rate themselves in the highest categories of computer skill competency compared to girls at coeducational schools Sax, Likewise, a three-year study comparing girls in single-sex computing classrooms to boys and girls in mixed-sex computing classes found that girls in the single-sex classes reported higher levels of 1 perceived teacher support, 2 confidence, and 3 intent to pursue future academic and career options than did girls in the mixed- sex classes.

Girls in all-girls classes reported levels as high as the boys in the mixed-sex classes on perceived teacher support but lower levels than the boys in confidence. Boys reported higher levels than did girls from mixed-sex classes on perceived teacher support, confidence, intrinsic value, and future intentions.

Find out how you can join this campaign and help to educate and train other counselors to advocate for change and work effectively with students in guiding them toward computing careers. More information is available at www. Talking points for having these conversations with parents and young women are available at www. Additional resources that might be of interest to parents, such as the number of computing jobs projected and the salaries of these jobs are also available at www.

Work with administrators and teachers to identify how computing may be competing with other electives or other scheduling issues that make it difficult for students to enroll in these courses. Make sure people understand the difference between computer literacy and computing or computer science; see www. These data have been effective in making the case for computing education, and the website includes a report offering examples of how others have used this data.

Also check out the 52 girls in IT: The Facts www. This curriculum has been implemented widely in Los Angeles Unified School District and has dramatically increased African American, Latino, and female enrollment in these courses. Another pilot curriculum by the College Board, CS Principles, is also being implemented and tested in several high schools across the nation www. Identify how computing may be competing with other electives or other scheduling issues that make it difficult for students to enroll in these courses; then change these scheduling options.

Ensure that computing courses are actually implementing engaging and relevant curriculum and pedagogies. Ensure that school counselors are encouraging underrepresented students to pursue these careers. Programs like Globaloria, AgentSheets, and others partner with schools to train teachers to incorporate relevant computing curricula into mainstream classrooms.

This is, of course, vital if teachers are to be able to implement effective and engaging pedagogies in computing classrooms. Work with local industry to find additional resources as possible. The interactive CS education and jobs map mentioned earlier, and available at www. Talking points for making this case are available at www. A wealth of curricular resources and information on advocacy efforts is also available at the website. This relatively simple change would help establish computing courses as core curriculum courses and would make it easier and more valuable for students to enroll in these courses.

I thought it was all just html and stuff. The list below is not exhaustive; rather, our aim in this section is to provide an overview of some promising computing programs and their associated outcomes.

Some of these program evaluations have been think there was done with larger numbers of students and have produced statistically significant results. A few qualitative studies have also what you want. Where possible, however, for girls Marcu, we do note the nature and type of evaluation conducted. This section explores programs that range from half-day workshops to multi-year camps. I actually built These programs also employ a variety of approaches, including programming languages something This may, in part, be because of the convenience and cost her experience in a computing workshop effectiveness of one-day interventions.

Such camps are generally evaluated based on pre- for girls Marcu, and post-survey changes in student interest, confidence, and plans to pursue computing. Similarly, Doerschuk and colleagues report on positive findings for a one-day camp for middle school girls on computer science, including robotics. In post-surveys, girls reported that their perceptions of IT careers as difficult had declined. In another study comparing use of Alice with Storytelling Alice, girls using Storytelling Alice were more motivated to program and also reported a stronger interest in taking a future Alice course.

Informal assessments also indicated that boys quite enjoyed Storytelling Alice as well Kelleher et al. Less is known about the long-term impact of these one-day exposures, as there are few longitudinal studies measuring impact over time.

One exception is Craig and Horton who followed up after three months from a one-day workshop with eighth-grade girls. Their survey showed some decline in positive impact from the post-survey immediately following the camp, but it was still higher than before the workshop. More longitudinal research such as this would be valuable Craig et al. Like day camps, one-week camps and workshops also vary in their approach.

Some explicitly aim to help girls recognize how computer science can solve real-life problems and the wide range of computing careers available. Graham and Latulipe offered a week-long workshop for ninth- and tenth-grade girls at the University of Waterloo, showcasing the pervasiveness of CS and expanding stereotypical ideas about what types of people do CS work. Their data showed that girls had already embraced such stereotypes, but that some were debunked during the camp.

Another week-long camp with 46 middle school girls used Alice along with guest speakers in technology careers. One of the greatest strengths of the program was making participants feel that they had a better understanding of STEM and technical careers Marcu et al. A majority of the 53 girls approximately half White, half Hispanic also reported an increased interest in STEM because of the workshop and increased confidence and interest in engineering and computer science, in particular.

During the summertime, girls reported that the workshops using Alice were popular and enjoyable. They also enjoyed collaborative work and grasped basic programming skills. Hu reported that girls varied widely in their ability to follow more advanced programming, like loops or conditionals. These different learning levels presented challenges for teachers in terms of decisions about when to move forward and when to focus on finishing tasks.

Sivilotti and Demirbas reported success with a five-day summer camp of 28 eighth-grade girls where part of the camp focused on teaching elementary components of graduate level CS concepts. In particular, they focused on self-stabilizing distributed algorithms and the concept of fault tolerance. In post-workshop evaluations, the girls reported enjoying the CS unit the most of all the units in the camp.

These same researchers also evaluated a later camp with 30 eighth-grade girls. Georgia Computes! These camps are financially self-sustaining and result in statistically significant positive changes in attitudes towards computing.

The camps also result in statistically significant learning as measured by pre and post multiple-choice tests. Georgia Tech has helped 11 other colleges and universities in Georgia start computing summer camps as part of Georgia Computes!

Summer camps also can have an impact. Pollock and colleagues evaluated the POWER program, a camp designed for high school girls entering college. They surveyed 21 girls two years after the summer program. Seventy percent of the participants said that the program had a positive impact on taking subsequent mathematics or computer science courses.

Lau et al. Similarly, Kuznetsov and colleagues illustrate the impacts of even longer camps using this technology. Their five-week camp focuses on at-risk and lower-income middle school girls. While girls reported frustration with some of the more repetitive tasks, like sewing, the girls expressed enjoyment around working toward a final product to show to family members and friends.

Repeated summer camps offering experiences for returning campers also show promise see Blair et al. Adams reports on three years of summer camps plus one pilot year, using Alice to introduce programming to students before high school. The camps were single-sex camps of both boys and girls. Girls in the camp reported increased confidence and appreciation of computing.

In , Adams followed up with a study of these camps that began using Scratch software in addition to Alice. The program provides high-achieving, low-income, underrepresented high school students of color rigorous STEM classes, dorm living on college campuses, college preparation courses, field trips, and guest speakers.

In addition to project-based, technology-rich traditional math and science courses e. Some summer camps extend into the school year and beyond. The camp includes both summer and semester activities, experiential learning of computing in context, and role model and peer mentorship.

The YWiC program builds on three principles: 1 participating students operate as part of cohorts; 2 computational concepts are introduced in the form of computational thinking, often applied to other domains e. The summer program lasts five weeks, and cohorts continue into the academic year to solidify the bonds with the school and provide motivational activities. To sustain the momentum after finishing the program, students are encouraged to participate in the subsequent cycles of the program as peer mentors.

After completing high school, students interested in pursuing computer science at NMSU are employed as undergraduate research assistants working for the program. A longer-term program that appears to offer exciting promise is Digital Divas, a semester- long program that introduces middle school girls to computing using engaging computing experiences.

Both the undergraduate mentors and the computing professionals who spoke to the classrooms helped to break down stereotypes of computing; two-thirds of the girls commented on the post-program, open-ended questionnaires that they would now consider a career in IT. When asked why, most girls reported that this increased interest was due to a better understanding of the variety of things one could do with a computing career Lang,et al.

Longitudinal effects of this program are currently under investigation Craig, et al. Game Design Programs. Recent years have seen a dramatic increase in the number of programs attempting to expose students to computing through game design. Many of these are short workshops as well, but we include a brief separate section focused on these programs because of their growing prevalence.

Likewise, game design and programming were effective in helping girls develop skills such as using graphics and databases, as well as more fundamental computing concepts, such as algorithmic thinking Werner et al. Similarly, an analysis of games created by middle school 58 girls in IT: The Facts www. In another study of a small, week-long game design course that also included an introduction to CS and women in the field, five out of nine girls strongly agreed that they were more likely to try computer science in high school after taking this course Carmichael, Another small ethnographic study of a program with seven middle school girls six girls of color found that when girls created games, it influenced their technical in this case, engineering identities.

Their developing sense of themselves as technical or as engineers was also significantly influenced by activities where they collaborated and met with external clients and experts. Yet another small ethnographic study of a game design program for girls found that girls enjoyed learning real-world technical skills, like Flash, that they can use in broader digital cultures Cunningham, This program, however, tended to focus on developing competency rather than fluency which limited some of the outcomes of the program.

Hayes b recommends that future game design should ensure that more modding opportunities are built into games that girls tend to play. I believe after-school and formal school curricula in several states. In many cases, these programs this was useful as have seen increased enrollments for girls or enrollment rates that exceed the national most students average for girls in computing courses.

While these programs have yet programming was not as strong as they to demonstrate significant increases in interest, confidence, and intent to pursue thought.

Further research is needed participating in to understand this connection. Ongoing research is underway to further investigate these patterns. In addition to some promising initial results, the integration of these kinds of curricula into the regular school day is an important step for reaching a wider array of students and for making computing a part of the regular, core curriculum.

Culturally Relevant Computing. It seeks to combine culturally relevant teaching, social justice, and technology. Preliminary results have indicated that girls have seen an increase in their knowledge of technological and academic concepts; yet, these boosts were not necessarily encouraging them to see themselves as future technologists.

Formal Education Programs Exploring Computer Science is a coordinated comprehensive effort coming out of research conducted in Los Angeles schools Margolis, et al. While the focus has been on schools in the LAUSD, similar efforts are now being implemented in Chicago public schools, and the downloadable CS curriculum is available to anyone at www. The Computer Science Equity Alliance is also continuing to develop a model and repository of promising practices also available at www.

It also helped created a CS endorsement that can be added to any teaching certificate. One goal of Georgia Computes!

While other factors have likely been at play in this increase, this program has likely accelerated the development of these additional AP CS A teachers. Feedback from workshops has been very positive, with nearly all participants saying that they would recommend the workshop to colleagues.

In the short time the program has been running, several teachers also have reported increases in the number of girls in their computer science classes.

In so doing, we also have identified areas where we know quite a bit and other areas where future research is needed. In summary, we highlight a few of these areas below. Key among these strategies include curriculum that is relevant and makes connections between computer science and the real-life problems that it can help solve, use of pair programming and collaborative work, active recruitment of girls into computing classes, role models that girls can relate to, and early exposure to a variety of computing activities.

The challenge now is implementing these curricula and pedagogies at a systemic level. And to a large extent, we know how to go about doing this as well, as evidenced by some of the promising models that have already begun to transform these conditions for girls and youth of color.

Again, the challenge here is implementation and replicating these efforts more broadly. Gaming is also a burgeoning area that seems to hold potential for engaging girls but future research is needed to understand if and how this can be done effectively.

Likewise, while we know that media is a powerful influence and some studies have examined the kinds of representations available, few studies have examined how youth actually consume and make sense of these messages. This research should investigate how all girls draw on discourses and messages about race, class, and gender in shaping their identities and how this affects their plans for future education and careers in computing.

We also need further research on how we might better develop culturally relevant computing programs that make direct connections between computing and social inequities related to race, class, gender, sexual 62 girls in IT: The Facts www. Throughout this report, we have noted how important it is to show girls how computing can be used to address societal problems. Helping them see how technology and computing can be employed in efforts to improve social justice can be an important way of making these connections, especially for youth who are profoundly affected by these inequities.

This omission is particularly noteworthy for three reasons. Second, existing research identifies work-life issues as a significant barrier women face in choosing and advancing in technical careers e. Sexuality is central to the decisions girls and boys make in this regard e. These decisions will have a lasting impact on the kinds of work-life issues these girls face e.

That we wait until adulthood to address these issues, leaving girls to figure out these complexities all on their own, is short-sighted and likely counterproductive. While sexuality can be a highly-charged topic, emerging research has shown that connecting curriculum to youth interest in sexuality can, in fact, increase their participation in a variety of academic activities that they previously resisted Ashcraft, Exploring the potential of these connections for computing is an important area for future work.

While evaluation of many promising programs has begun, many of these evaluations have been exploratory in nature and have been done with relatively small numbers of girls. More qualitative and quantitative research and evaluation is needed so that we can continue to improve and refine these efforts. Doing so is important for girls, for the future of innovation, and for society at large.

In addition, we also solicited the help from members of our K—12 Alliance, who also contributed articles from their extensive libraries. These contributions were especially important for helping us gain access to valuable program evaluations and smaller research studies we might have otherwise missed. The criteria below help to ensure that the research reviewed here is reliable and of high quality. In an effort to keep this report a manageable length, we are unable to provide detailed methodological reviews regarding the merits and limitations of individual articles or studies; however, where possible, we do attempt to indicate the size and nature of individual studies, as well as identify where strong evidence exists for particular findings and where future research is needed.

Because much of the research on girls and IT is recently and rapidly emerging, we include a number of more preliminary or exploratory studies, but these must appear in a peer-reviewed venue, such as SIGCSE or other conference proceedings. In some cases, we made an exception if there was a valid reason for doing so e. We explain the rationale for any such exceptions within the report.

In some cases, studies that focus on K—12 students and computing, but not on gender, were included if there was a reason to do so for comparative or other kinds of purposes. In some cases, we included research or data related to undergraduates if it was also likely to be applicable to or shed light on circumstances at the K—12 level.

Such perspectives employ a perspective on sex or gender that takes for granted a traditional male-female dichotomy and ignores how these categories are in fact socially constructed and performed. This mapping also sometimes follows cultural discourses of boys and girls as having innate, natural, biological differences e. A variety of scholars in interpretivism, social constructionism, feminism, critical theory, and post-structuralism have illustrated the limitations of these assumptions.

In so doing, they illustrate how we are not born with but rather are rigorously recruited to our gendered identities, how we perform and reproduce these identities in everyday interactions, and how this has real implications for employment, relationships, identities, and social change. While the scope of this report is on girls and IT, we note that men also perform their gender and hold one another accountable for such performances Connell, While, in this report, we do focus on girls in IT, we are aware of the ways in which femininity and masculinity discourses shape one another and believe that it is also important to consider how men, masculinity, and occupations are as much a part of the story of girls in IT as girls themselves are see Acker, , Privilege acts as a veil covering what we explore in our inquiries Alexander, , and we must also consider our own positions of privilege as researchers and how to be open to other politics than our own.

While a few scholars have begun such work e. Download PowerPoint slides and charts. JPG modules from individual sections for your own presentations, proposals, reports, etc. Available at www. Computing Education and Future Jobs Interactive Map: NCWIT provides an interactive map that presents education and workforce data at the national, state, and congressional district level.

Use this map and the other tools on this site to influence educators, legislators, administrators, parents, and other decision-makers where you live or work. Counselors for Computing Campaign C4C : Counselors for Computing C4C is a four-year campaign that equips counselors with up-to-date information and resources they can use to advise students — especially girls — regarding education and careers in IT. Information is provided to address these specific questions: What should you tell a young woman about a career in IT?

How can a young woman prepare now for a career in IT? It offers tips for making this case with curriculum decision makers and suggests steps that schools can take to successfully incorporate computer science education. All of these resources are available at www. Abbiss, J. Gender and Education, 20 2 , Acker, J. Hierarchies, jobs, bodies: A theory of gendered organizations. Inequality regimes: Gender, class, and race in organizations. Adams, J. Adya, M. Information Technology and People, 18 3 , Alexander, J.

Anderson, N. Aronson, J. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 35, Ashcraft, C. American Educational Research Journal, 45, 3, Women in IT: The Facts. Barker, L. The state of research on girls and IT.

Aspray Eds. Cambridge: MIT Press. Making visible the behaviors that influence learning environment: A qualitative exploration of computer science classrooms.

Computer Science Education, 14, Barron, B. Learning ecologies for technological fluency: Gender and experience differences. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 31 1 , Berenson, S. Burger, E. Meszaros Eds. Black, J. A study in engaging female students in computer science using role models. Blair, K. Looking into the digital mirror: Reflections on a computer camp for girls by girls. Mazzarella Ed. New York: Peter Lang. Bordo, S. Brawner, C. Unpublished evaluation. Bruckman, A.

Gender and programming achievement in a CSCL environment. Butler, J. Cannon, K. Second annual robotics summer camp for underrepresented students. Cassell, J. Chess for girls? Feminism and computer games. Jenkins Eds. Carmichael, G. Girls, computer science, and games. Carter, L. Cheryan, S. Explaining underrepresentation: A theory of precluded interest. Sex Roles, 63 , Classrooms matter: The design of virtual classrooms influences gender disparities in computer science classes.

Ambient belonging: How stereotypical cues impact gender participation in computer science. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97 6 , Social Psychological and Personality Science, 2 6 , Clark Blickenstaff, J. Women and science careers: Leaky pipeline or gender filter? Gender and Education, 17 4 , Clayton, K. Gender stereotypes prevail in ICT: A research review. Theorizing the machine: Gender, education and computing.

Gender and Education, 13 3 , Cohoon, J. Women and Information Technology: Research on Underrepresentation. College Board Colley, A. Computers in Human Behavior, 19 6 , Age and gender differences in computer use and attitudes among secondary school students: What has changed? Educational Research, 45 2 , Connell, R.

The social organizing of masculinity. Barrette Eds. Malden, MA: Polity. Countryman, J. Developing a hardware and programming curriculum for middle school girls. Cozza, M. Bridging gender gaps, networking in computer Science. Gender, Technology and Development, 15 2 , Craig, A. Evaluation framework underpinning the digital divas programme.

Twenty years of girls into computing days: Has it been worth the effort? Journal of Information Technology Education, 7, Craig, M. Gr8 designs for Gr8 girls: A middle-school program and its evaluation. Crombie, G. All-female classes in high school computer science: Positive effects in three years of data. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 27 4 , Cunningham, C. Girl game designers. Dahlberg, T. Computer Education, 11 3. Denner, J. The role of the family in the IT career goals of middle school Latinas.

Paper International Journal of Gender, Science and Technology, 3 1. Computer programming in middle school: How pairs respond to challenges. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 37 2 , Computer games created by middle school girls: Can they be used to measure understanding of computer science concepts? The girls creating games program: Strategies for engaging middle-school girls in information technology. Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies, 26 1 , Mediating programming through chat for the OLPC.

Doerschuk, P. Pilot summer camps in computing for middle school girls: From organization through assessment. Dresang, E. New perspectives: An analysis of gender, net-generation children, and computers. Library Trends, 56 2 , Dryburgh, H. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 23 2 , DuBow, W.

E-textiles Workshops Evaluation. Eisenhart, M. Children, Youth and Environments, 14 2 , Ericson, B. Effective , federal nonresident taxes may be filed electronically. Applications are still accepted after the priority dates for each term.

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– Graduate pathway program usaintel emerge

VTTI has effected significant change in public policies for driver, passenger, and pedestrian safety and is advancing the design of vehicles and infrastructure to. A study in engaging female students in computer science using role models. To help make this case, visit www. Making visible the behaviors that influence learning environment: A qualitative exploration of computer science classrooms. Knupfer, N. This curriculum has been implemented widely in Los Angeles Unified School District and has dramatically increased African American, Latino, and female enrollment in these courses. Learn more about active recruiting strategies by attending a Tapestry Workshop www.




By using our usainte, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. To learn more, view our Privacy Policy. To browse Academia. Graham CooperRaina Mason. Denise Agosto. Executive Summary It is widely recognized that the current and projected shortage of adequately-educated IT professionals could be greatly reduced if more female and minority students would major in IT disciplines, yet the dramatic under-representation of these populations appears to be worsening.

Ioanna Vekiri. More surprisingly, there has been a significant increase in the representation of women in all other /7324.txt fields graduate pathway program usaintel emerge professions. Our aim is to provide some clues to fight the feeling of inexorability that may be entailed by the research on women in computing.

These trends traduate us question how we are conducting research within this field and urge us to problematise assumptions about computing and gender that we may paradoxically continue to reproduce even while denouncing the paucity of women in computing and studying the reasons for this state of affairs.

Colin Lankshear. Jonathan Schaeffer. Jeremy Dietmeier. There is a shortage of female computer scientists in the workforce. Graduate pathway program usaintel emerge have been working on this problem for pprogram twenty years, but the disparity remains. This piece explores using life histories to create technobiographies as a way to think about future selves.

Three case studies of students participating in an after school usainte, club are used to look at how their individual technobiographies help explain why or why not the intervention helped the student think of computer programming as a possible future career.

Two variables played the largest roles: identifying as a person that does computer programming and seeing computer scientist as a possible future self. Implications for future computer science interventions, especially those aimed at girls, are discussed. Roberto /69841.txt Bittencourt. A programming workshop with the playful environment Scratch and a teaching-learning approach based on challenges was held in a middle school of city in the northeast of Brazil, and was analyzed using a mixed-methods case study.

Graduate pathway program usaintel emerge point to increased interest in the field after the workshop and no confirmation of erroneous stereotypes about the area. We conclude that this type of workshop is graduate pathway program usaintel emerge to better understand and potentially improve girls’ perceptions about the field of computing. Maria KordakiIoannis Berdousis. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between gender and achievement in the various subjects of CS.

For this reason, the probram 89 degrees of all graduate students who enrolled from to a 6-year period of graduation at the Usaintrl of CS and Technology, University of Peloponnese, Greece were studied. To this end, the grades of these students in both; compulsory courses and electives were studied and quantitatively analysed. In terms of methodology this study graduate pathway program usaintel emerge be characterized as a case study.

Rebecca Scheckler. Susan MillerDavid Webb. Neil Anderson. Clifford Lee. Sarah Graduate pathway program usaintel emerge. Eileen Peluso. Dorian StoilescuDouglas McDougall. Hilde G. CorneliussenFay Tveranger. Esmail Usaijtel. Jean M Griffin. Judy McKay. Kate M. Roy Pea. TACCLE 3, O5: An overview of the most relevant literature graduate pathway program usaintel emerge coding and computational thinking with emphasis on the relevant issues for teachers.

Daniela ReimannAngela Gerrard. Billy WongPeter Kemp. Sarita Yardi Schoenebeck. Paul Нажмите чтобы прочитать больше. Kirien Graeuate. Katriona O’Sullivan. Brenda L Berkelaar. Sharin Jacob. Tony Koppi. Lauderdale, Florida. Debbie Taylor. Vicki Almstrum. Lynn Thackeray. Ross J Benbow. Michael Karlin, PhD.

International Journal of Gender, Science and Technology. Kimberly A Scott. Meagan RothschildAmanda Ochsner. Tanya McGill. Elizabeth Patitsas. Amardeep Kahlon. Log in with Facebook Log in with Google. Remember me on this computer. Enter the email address you signed up with and we’ll email you a reset link.

Need an account? Click here to sign up. Download Free PDF. Girls in IT: The Facts. Elizabeth K. Related Papers. ACM Inroads Girls get it. Technobiographies and Futures Selves. Berdousis, I. The authors also thank Stephanie Hamilton and Adriane Bradberry for their significant contributions to this report.

Technology is Everywhere, but where are the girls? Our girls are avid users of new technologies, but, to date, girls and women continue to be significantly underrepresented in technical occupations. This pattern is particularly troubling graduate pathway program usaintel emerge the computing industry is one of the fastest-growing industries in the U.

Technology is everywhere, and computing-related occupations are among the highest-paying jobs. It is our hope that this report also will inspire and enable readers to act locally and nationally, advocating for more inclusive computing curriculum, practices, and environments. A wealth of research in the past decade shows that graduate pathway program usaintel emerge improves problem-solving, productivity, innovation, and ultimately, the bottom line. Department of Labor estimates that between — there will be more than 1.

Young women bring great potential for filling this gap, yet to date, many factors dissuade them from choosing these majors and careers. Furthermore, women already employed in the technology industry are leaving at staggering rates. Section 3 provides recommendations based on research for addressing these barriers, links to practical resources for implementing these recommendations, and a quick overview of some of the most recent promising programs for girls in computing.

Skimming through each section of the report and reading these statements will provide you with a quick sense of the overall picture. How can I use this report to help make change?

Scope and Methodology in Brief Scope In this report, we focus primarily on research that examines how girls create or adapt technology rather than on how they simply use technology. Research in the s and early s focused on technology access and the digital divide, pushing to provide educational and home access to prlgram, the Internet, and other technologies.

Because of this research and subsequent policy and educational reforms, access divides for boys and graduate pathway program usaintel emerge have largely diminished National Telecommunications and Information Administration NTIA report, ; Pew Research Center, Pzthway the same 4 girls in IT: The Facts www.

Focusing on how girls create or adapt technologies, then, allows us to understand the way girls participate in and make sense of computing graduate pathway program usaintel emerge IT work, rather than staying at the surface level of their technology use. Our report builds on this work by examining research and evaluation from the early s to the present. In some cases, however, we will reference earlier work if it still seems important to highlight or is necessary for providing past context.

We also wish to note that, to date, most research on gender and computing treats gender primarily as a variable or demographic category, where the graduate pathway program usaintel emerge is on identifying patterns related to what girls do or what boys do.

The research reviewed in this report reflects this tendency. While patwhay research is important, it typically conflates gender with sex graduate pathway program usaintel emerge takes for granted a male-female binary.




For some international students, these differences can make transitioning into a study abroad program tricky. Pathway programs for international students in the USA make your dream degree accessible no matter which education system you studied under. From polishing up your English proficiency to developing graduate-level skills, the right pathway program can ease you straight into your dream US university program.

As with any study abroad program, the key is to research and pinpoint the right option for you. The name gives it away – these programs create pathways for students to access their target higher education programs. Some universities offer conditional admission when you apply for their pathway programs. This means that by completing the program and maintaining a level of academic performance, you can transition to studying a full-time program at that university.

Generally, a pathway program is a year long. Some programs offer anywhere between one to four semesters of courses. That depends on the pathway program. Some programs offer credit-bearing courses. By completing the program, you earn a set number of credits that count towards your degree completion. Depending on the program, you may be able to transfer these credits to programs under different schools too.

This may extend the general timeline for getting your degree. UniSearch Author. Jul 24, Date Published. Ease into the American Way of Learning The jump from the learning environments you grew up in into an American classroom can be drastic. Your leadership journey. Have questions about the graduate pathway programs? Please contact Graduate Admissions at or Email us at graduate umw. Feel free to visit our social media as well.

Facebook LinkedIn YouTube. Welcome to Graduate Admissions. Join more than 6, highly qualified public health professionals as part of the U. Public Health Service Corps. Overseen by the Surgeon General, you will be part of an elite and diverse cadre of professionals essential to public health leadership and exemplary clinical service.

Learn more. To be eligible for the work study program, students must be enrolled in an accredited college and must have received the federally-sponsored college work-study award through their academic institution. All applicants must pass a background investigation by the CDC security office.

Applicants NOT born U. Citizens, or who later became citizens must provide proof of U. Applicants born abroad as U. Citizens military-related must provide a copy of their birth certificate.

International students attending accredited schools in the U. Students may work during the academic school year only i. These awards are for fall and spring only.

Funds are paid directly to students on a bi-weekly basis, depending on the number of hours worked. Visit the Emory Rollins Earn and Learn Program website for guidance on eligibility, the hiring process, potential wages and hours, the student handbook and a list of approved employers:.

Students can gain practical experience by engaging in projects and tasks that contribute to their professional development. Non-paid students are important in recruiting and developing skilled workers and preparing the workforce of the future. It is a win-win relationship for the student, the institution and CDC. SWEP is available to any CIO interested in providing an eager student with temporary, unpaid, practical work experience.

Students volunteer for a maximum of six months days during the academic school year or summer months. The SWEP manager must approve assignments and extensions up to an additional days.

Note: Home-schooled students must participate in either an accredited home-school or a home-school curriculum approved by the state. A wide variety of volunteer opportunities are available, from administrative and program support, to research- related projects. The program seeks to promote CDC as a preferred employer.

Student ambassadors work at their campuses and in their communities to actively promote public service and public health among their peers as a means of making a positive difference. The ambassadors promote public health initiatives on campus and in the community, and build relationships between faculty and student groups. Are you a talented scientist engaged in public health research, studies, training, or investigations? If so, you may qualify for one of our many fellowship programs.

Contact the specific CDC organization for information about service fellowships. Initial assignments are up to five years long and may be extended in five-year increments. Regular Fellows are classified as trainees and do not require an FTE.

Regular Fellows are appointed to study physical and mental diseases and impairments of humankind; the organization, provision and financing of health services; and information communication. Appointments for Regular Fellows may be for citizens or non-citizens not born in the United States or naturalized and may be full-time 80 hours or more per pay period or part-time less than 80 hours per pay period unless Visa requirements dictate otherwise.

The initial appointment for Regular Fellows is for a period not to exceed one year and may be extended up to seven years. Extensions may be made in one-year increments, not to exceed seven years. The appointment and extensions assume there are no visa time constraints. Work schedules may be full-time or part-time. View the Employee Benefits Eligibility Chart for more information on the provisions of the fellowship programs and benefits for Service Fellowship Program participants.

Generally speaking, federal agencies are prohibited by law section of title 31, United States Code from accepting volunteer service. No person may provide unpaid service to the Government or provide service with the understanding that he or she will waive pay.

Exceptions to this prohibition are provided only for:. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention does not maintain a centralized database of volunteer opportunities. Learners seeking a college degree in the U. By helping students build linguistic abilities, colleges and universities can improve retention and degree completion rates.

Future employers also see rewards from pathway programs, which ensure students have English language competencies before they enter the workforce. Alongside colleges and universities, many potential employers offer financial support for students enrolled in pathway programs.

In particular, government agencies and technology firms often support students enrolled in pathway programs in the U. Many students enrolled in pathway programs earn credit toward undergraduate or graduate degrees, and they can continue along that degree path without enrolling in a separate preparatory program. Undergraduate pathway programs in the U.

For example, pathway programs for undergraduates often include additional support classes, community engagements, and practical opportunities to hone both English and academic abilities, helping learners acclimate to life in the U. Some pathway program enrollees choose to live with a family member or friend, but on-campus living is encouraged for maximum language immersion. Pathway program students often live with fellow participants, which helps them build connections and social support.

Pathway program students come from around the world, adding an element of diversity and multicultural understanding among the group. Cohorts of pathway program learners who plan to earn degrees in the same discipline may continue on together through the duration of their studies.

Accelerated one- and three-semester programs are also available for students with varying levels of knowledge and experience. The curriculum in a pathway program is designed to optimize student success. Coursework varies by program, but core classes emphasize academic skills, language abilities, and math and science fundamentals.

Students study applied English, writing, communication, and computer applications. Programs also include courses in American culture, which help learners adjust to life in the U. Some pathway programs feed directly into undergraduate degrees.

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