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London: Routledge. Dossena, Marina. In Alonso-Almeida, Francisco ed. In Jucker, Andreas H. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter Stance is present in scientific writing, indeed.

Token: A Journal of English Linguistics 3: Maria C. Silvia Betti. Saeed Rezaei , Maryam Farnia. Facundo Muniain , Ibon Manterola. Liliana Correia. Jorge Pinto. Vesna Mladjenovic. Davi Albuquerque. Otto Zwartjes. Marie-Eve Bouchard. David Bunis. Soraya Santana. Emma Shirley. Heliana Mello. Montse Casanovas. Escobar Eds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Felicity Meakins , Jesse Stewart. Tom Finbow. Peter Ecke. Francisco Miguel Valada.

Log in with Facebook Log in with Google. Remember me on this computer. Enter the email address you signed up with and we’ll email you a reset link. Need an account? Click here to sign up. Download Free PDF. Annamaria Cacchione Emma Procter-Legg. Related Papers. Critical thinking in the development of English language teaching materials: A focus on writers’ and editors’ conceptualisations of unit in diversity. The Origins and Motivations of Animal Metaphors.

Dominios de linguagem. This exciting challenge was approved for a very busy year of activities: on April of the same year, this budding national Association of Language Centers in Higher Education in Portugal had successfully hosted the annual seminar for their European counterpart — CercleS the European Association of Language Centers in Higher Education.

Having been identified as the newest and most burgeoning national member, with 15 member universities and polytechnics in such a small country, CercleS was keen to give ReCLes. The opportunity to meet with other researchers is always met with zeal although this time the response was even greater than we had hoped.

These proceedings comprise 20 papers based on presentations and keynote addresses. The editors kindly thank the keynote speakers and the other authors who chose to write full papers. We hope these proceedings inspire further research and interest in the areas that we hold so dear. Originated and supported by European policies on language, CLIL would not be growing and developing as it is now had it not been for a number of factors anticipating and preparing the ground for its successful expansion both in and outside the European continent.

These factors comprise, on the one hand, global processes affecting theoretical, social and educational developments while, at the same time, involving aspects relating local situations or specific contexts. One such specific context, Spain, is analysed here. Keywords: Content and Language Integrated Learning CLIL , Bilingual Education, Multilingualism in Europe Introduction In the last two decades, Europe has seen the rise of new bilingual experiences designated under the umbrella term of Content and Language Integrated Learning CLIL , usually presented as the contribution of the old continent to bilingual education or as the European model for bilingual education, even though some researchers cf.

Cenoz et Al. As shown in the Eurydice reports , , ever since the European Commission passed the Action Plan for Language Learning in Barcelona in , the number of schools and countries where CLIL is being implemented has not ceased to grow and there are more and more projects involving CLIL practitioners from all around Europe.

Only in the last couple of years, we have seen, to mention but some important landmarks, the publication of a book by a major publisher Llinares et al. In a way, it could be said that CLIL has come of age, that it has become a success story that has developed in a relatively short period.

It goes without saying that there is clearly a relevant role for the European policies, first developed by the Council of Europe, and then implemented at different times by the Commission. However, given the voluntary and advisory nature of these policies for the individual member states, it stands to reason that there must have been other factors.

In my view, these other factors can be classified in two groups. On the one hand, we have factors that are more global in nature and more related to the theoretical foundations of CLIL or related to the social context. On the other hand, this global explanation is complemented by more local factors which may be ascribed to the particular situation of the specific country where CLIL programmes have been implemented.

In the present article, I will attempt to describe these two areas by focussing first on the general factors that made it possible for CLIL to be accepted as an educational option in Europe and then by explaining the particular circumstances facilitating its spread in Spain. Global factors When considering CLIL, one of the main traits that stands out is the diversity of angles that can be adopted, which comes as no surprise given the multi-faceted nature of everything related to the school experience.

Cenoz et al. In this article, these areas will be analysed under the following headings: 1 a theoretical shift in the Cognitive Sciences; 2 the impact of social factors; and 3 a new approach in the Educational Sciences. The theoretical shift The enforcement of the European bilingual experiences known as CLIL was made possible by a shift, not only in one but in a whole range of disciplines, which simultaneously prepared the ground for all agents involved — teachers, policy makers, parents, etc.

This wide range of subjects share a common interest in human cognition and include disciplines such as Philosophy — especially as connected with language —, or Psychology and Neuroscience, which deal with topics such Bilingualism and Second Language Acquisition SLA. Obviously, as a field far removed from immediate or practical concerns, one would not expect Philosophy to be in any way related to the evolution of bilingual education experiences.

However, the linguistic turn in philosophy Rorty , which is, in my opinion, at the heart of the social constructivist approach to education, reviewed below, points to a fact that has become generally accepted, i.

Thus, incorporating additional languages to the linguistic repertoire of European citizens, which is the ultimate aim of CLIL, would result from an epistemological need to gain access to knowledge from perspectives other than the one provided by your first language. The cultural nature of the European project becomes thus part of the educational process.

More directly influential on CLIL is the body of research on bilingualism, an area clearly established within the field of Psycholinguistics. In my opinion, it would not have been possible to advance in the implementation of bilingual programmes such as CLIL if the theoretical outlook on bilingualism had not radically changed in the last 30 years or so. In its place, the more experimentally-oriented research on bilingualism cf. Rather, the definition used is necessarily variable and refers to someone who uses two languages very often or, as Bialystok 20 puts it, the ability to carry on conversations and engage in the same kind of activities in two languages, i.

From its traditional emphasis on the use of methods, the language teaching profession has begun, encouraged by figures such as Stephen Krashen, to pay more attention to the principles underlying the acquisition process and to the host of factors which the ever-increasing SLA literature has stressed as being part of that process.

Speaking in terms of a usage-based approach to language learning, CLIL would mean paying attention to two of the mechanisms with a major role: frequency effects and the variability of contexts where a language is learned Eskildsen Social and political forces The propaedeutic function of the Cognitive Sciences described above is not sufficient to explain why typically monolingual educational systems, which had previously only incorporated some classes in one or two different foreign languages FLs , accepted giving them a new leading role, as has happened in CLIL.

For such an important decision to be accepted by the general public, some social and political forces must have also prepared the ground. The major social force influencing educational agents parents, teachers, policy makers, etc. Students need FL skills if they want to participate in areas which are so characteristic of the present time such as information technologies, mass media and the economy cf.

Baker The European Union has been only too aware of this situation and has promoted a labour force with practical language and intercultural skills, which are crucial for economic growth and better jobs, enabling European companies to compete effectively in the global marketplace. For European policy makers, CLIL is an essential part of this strategy as it provides for the preparation of this labour force from the very beginning. Another major force is the societal and political reality of Europe which, in spite of its ups and downs, has contributed to the vision that multilingualism as an essential skill for a European citizenship.

Finally, it also seems undeniable that, in spite of European efforts to promote multilingualism, the rise of English to the status of a lingua franca or an international language has had a major role in the consolidation of CLIL throughout Europe. Educational bases In educational terms, the presence of CLIL can only be understood under a re- evaluation of the importance of language in the school.

Nowhere is this new assessment better expressed than in the book by Mary Schleppegrell entitled The Language of Schooling, in which she states that [e]xploring the features of language used in schooling highlights the relationship between language and learning in ways that reveal the close connection between language and content in all school subjects. Knowing how knowledge is construed in language can make the relationship between language and learning a focus of attention in schools and help teachers… At the same time making explicit the way the curriculum is construed in language can also open up the curriculum to challenge or change by those who recognize its limitations or constraints.

Schleppegrell 5 This emphasis on language in school contexts is most clearly perceived by social educational approaches and in particular by social constructivism, which has had an ample influence in the last years. For this social-constructionist view, the learning of new knowledge in a school context not only results from assimilating existing information, usually in the form of memorisation but also basically involves the construction by a community, in the case of the education context — a classroom, of the models that explain the world around.

Explaining CLIL Success: A look at the Spanish case 7 It is this shift from mere transmission of knowledge to the emergence of meaning in the classroom, a typical feature of constructivism, which creates the conditions for the appearance of CLIL with its emphasis on scaffolding Coyle Thus, the progressive change in the dynamics of the classroom that is happening in the schools of the 21st century, where the role of the teacher gradually turns from the expert or authority figure into a facilitator or negotiator of meaning, is clearly paving the way for a CLIL methodology where the teacher, typically a non-native speaker, needs to adopt a new function in order to be able to cope with the requirements of teaching in a foreign language, among other aspects.

At the same time, the more active role of the students is also more congruent with the activities that are typical in a CLIL class. In the more specific territory of the language teaching profession, some of these methodological changes in the school have been coincident with the boom of the Communicative Language Teaching CLT approach and with some related developments such as the task-based curriculum or the Language for Specific Purposes movement.

This meant greater attention to meaning and authentic language use appropriate to the different situations in which the target language was used as a means to learn or to communicate. The result has been a continuum varying from strictly language-driven approaches to more content-driven ones cf. Met , in Cenoz et al. Local Factors: the case of Spain Together with these global forces, CLIL has sometimes gathered momentum pushed by other factors that are more related to the particular situation of a specific context.

Hanushek et al. Thus, the same student when in contact with a group of academically bright colleagues will tend to perform better than when in contact with a group of low achievers. Its importance in Spanish CLIL has to do with the voluntary nature of bilingual experiences in this country since parents are free to enrol their children in the programmes offered by schools. As a consequence, CLIL groups usually perform better and create the conditions for academic levels to be higher because both teachers and students realize the new context.

The second related circumstance promoting the presence of CLIL in Spain is linked to the poor results in foreign language learning in this country. As a consequence, there is a hard felt need, especially by parents from higher socio-cultural backgrounds, to overcome this situation and to offer their children additional opportunities to reach a FL level above the one the educational system seems to be providing. By offering more contact with the FL and therefore increasing the amount of input, CLIL seems to be a reasonable option even at the expense of having to lower the standards in content subjects.

Conclusion In this paper, I have outlined some of the trends that may help to understand why CLIL has become a success story. References Ackerl, C. Vienna English Working Papers 16 3.

Admiraal, W. English Educational Research and Evaluation 12 1. Baker, C. Foundations of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism.

Clevendon, UK: Multilingual Matters. Barac, R. Bialystok Cognitive development in bilingual children. Language Teaching Bialystok, E. Bilingualism: the good, the bad and the indifferent. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 12 1.

Bilingualism in development. Cambridge: CUP. Bruton, A. A reply to Lorenzo, Casal and Moore Applied Linguistics 32 2. Is CLIL so beneficial, or just selective? Re-evaluating some of the research. System 39 4. CLIL: some of the reasons why… and why not.

Syste, Cenoz, J. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism Applied Linguistics Advance access. Coyle, D. Van Deusen-Scholl and N. Hornberger eds. New York: Springer. Crujeiras, B. Challenges in the implementation of a competency-based curriculum in Spain. Thinking Skills and Creativity L2 negation constructions at work.

Language Learning 62 2. Eurydice Report. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. European Commission First European survey on language competences: Final report. European Union. Hanushek, E. Woessmann eds.

Handbook of the Economics of Education Vol. Amsterdam: Elsevier. Lasagabaster, D. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching 5 1. Sierra Llinares, A. Whittaker The roles of language in CLIL. CLIL: Some thoughts on its psycholinguistic principles. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 15 3.

Grenfell, M. Modern Languages across the Curriculum. London: Routledge Falmer. Romaine, S. Oxford, UK: Blackwell. Schleppegrell, M. The Language of Schooling: A functional linguistics perspective. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Seikkula-Leino, J. CLIL learning: Achievement levels and affective factors. Language and Education 21 4.

Teaching in English or English teaching? Steiner, G. From Hellenism to Celan. International Philosophical Quaterly 2. Wode, H. Language learning in European immersion classes. Masih ed. Models, methods and outcomes, Human language, with the emergence of the Cognitive Sciences, contributes decisively to the opening of the interdisciplinary area which is already considered to be transversal, the Neurosciences. Everything related to the processing of language information now holds its own in the exploration and interpretation of diverse ongoing processes, namely acquisition and learning, as well as processes involving lesions that affect language.

The present discussion should contribute to the debate of the theoretical and methodological foundations of the neuro-functional organization of language in the brain. Stanners et al. Fabbro e Paradis ; Perani et al. Fabbro e Paradis ; Hernandez et al.

Kim et al. Perani et al. Bialystok et al. Sakai , entre outros fatores. Costa et al. Os resultados de estudos recentes cf. Silverberg e Samuel Kroll et al. Talamas et al. Mathis Conceptual and lexical development in second language acquisition. Journal of Memory and Language Kwan Scientific Studies of Reading 9 1. Bookheimer, S. Zeffiro, W. Theodore Regional cerebral blood flow changes during the comprehension of syntactically varying sentences.

Society of Neuroscience Abstracts Costa, A. Caramazza Chee, M. Caplan, C. Soon, N. Sriram, E. Tan, T. Weekes Neuron Chomsky, N. The Minimalist Program. Perea, A. Fraga no prelo. Vocabulary teaching strategies and conceptual representations of words in L2 in children: Evidence with novice beginners. Coudry, H. A neural basis for lexical retrieval. Nature Fabbro, F. Paradis Acquired aphasia in a bilingual child. Paradis ed. London: Pergamon Press. Kohnert Brain and Language Lexical and conceptual connections in second language acquisition: Data from Spanish and German.

Cognitiva 2. Gollan, T. Kroll Bilingual Lexical Access. In Brenda Rapp ed. The Handbook of Cognitive Neuropsychology. Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press. Illes, J. Francis, J. Desmond, J. Gabrieli, G. Glover, R. Poldrack, C. Wagner Convergent cortical representation of semantic processing in bilinguals.

Brain and Languages La Heij, W. Elens, R. Hartsuiker, D. Orthographic facilitation and categorical interference in a word-translation variant of the Stroop task. Canadian Journal of Psychology Kim, K. Relkin, K. Hirsch Distinct cortical areas associated with native and second languages. Kotz, S. Neurolinguistic evidence for bilingual memory representation: A comparison of reaction times and event-related brain potentials. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 4. The role of proficiency on processing categorical and associative information in the L2 as revealed by reaction times and event-related brain potentials.

Journal of Neurolinguistics Kuperberg, G. McGuire, E. Bullmore, M. Brammer, S. Rabe-Hesketh, I. C Wright, D. Lythogoe, S. David Common and distinct neural substrates for pragmatic, semantic, and syntactic processing of spoken sentences: An fMRI study. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience Marslen-Wilson, W.

Older McRae, K. Boisvert Automatic semantic similarity priming. Nilipour, R. Breakdown of functional categories in three Farsi English bilingual aphasic patients. Oxford: Pergamon Press. Perani, D. Paulesu, N. Sebastian-Galles, E. Dupoux, S. Dehaene, V. Bettinardi, S. Cappa, F. Mehler The Bilingual Brain: Proficiency and age of acquisition of the second language.

Brain The Language Instinct. Schacter, D. Tulving eds. Memory Systems. The nature of semantic priming: effects of the degree of semantic similarity between primes and targets in Spanish. The European Journal of Cognitive Psychology 18 2. Stanners, R. Neiser, W. Hall Memory representation for morphologically related words. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior Sakai, K. Language Acquisition and Brain Development.

Science Schlaggar, B. Brown, H. Lugar, K. Visscher, F. Petersen Functional neuroanatomical differences between adults and school-age children in the processing of single words. Silverberg, S. Samuel The effects of age of acquisition and fluency on processing second language words: Translation or direct conceptual access? Sonnenstuhl, I. Clahsen Morphological priming in the German mental lexicon. Cognition Talamas, A. Dufour From form to meaning: Stages in the acquisition of second language vocabulary.

Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 2 1. Ullman, M. Neuroscience 2 October. An event-related fMRI study of syntactic and semantic violations. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research Vigliocco, G. Vinson, W. Garrett Representing the meaning of object and action words: The featural and unitary semantic space FUSS hypothesis. Cognitive Psychology Wartenburger, I.

Heekeren, J. Abutelabi, S. Cappa, A. Perani Early setting of grammatical processing in the bilingual brain. While the project has involved regional primary and secondary schools, the Guarda Polytechnic itself, local NGOs and other private language and cultural institutions in the data collection process to determine the language education experience of the immigrant community in Guarda, Portugal, particularly in state-certified Portuguese language education courses, this article will focus on a critical and temporal analysis of the emission of national policy.

Their geo-strategic appeal brought peoples from all over the world through exploration based on ever-improving nautical know-how and an unquenchable thirst to know and even conquer the Other. In a contemporary context, the entry of Portugal into the European Union EU and the subsequent vast expansion of, especially in the first decade of the millennium, to 15 EU , then 27 countries EU and most recently to 28 with the addition of Croatia as of 1 July CEB , has meant that the Schengen Area potential, allowing free transit of goods and, in the context of this article, people within a geo-political space with a common visa policy, provides a more welcoming opportunity for immigration, regardless of the motivation.

Notwithstanding the objective of economic growth, it is undeniable that communication and intercultural dialogue together sit at the forefront of a world at peace, one of the goals of the war-ravaged inner six founders of the European Coal and Steel Company in and the European Economic Community of With the possibility of communicating in a world language, the debate has long ranged as to whether immigrants should, in fact, learn the language of their host county, citing financial, economic, linguistic, anxiety- driven, time-restraining, social and historical reasons, among others; yet these are not be the focus of this research project.

Instead, immigrant education in language and culture will be seen as an opportunity that begs a serious inquiry into the conditions offered by the immigrant education available in a host country within a specific region. Nevertheless, the current article will focus on a critical and temporal analysis of the legal structures supporting immigrant language and culture education specifically in Portugal.

Specifically, then, since the most recent turn of the century, a veritable puzzle of laws, resolutions, rulings and official statements have been issued in Portugal to provide immigrant language education for new residents. We, as language teachers, within the reach of the research project at hand, are examining the practical implementation of these policies and whether their pedagogical implications are paramount in determining their success.

The confluence of Portuguese legislation and scholarly concern in immigrant education Recent research by Campos et al.

Yet the decree only covered continental Portugal, such that L2 education for immigrants on the islands of the Azores and Madeira was contemplated for the first time in another decree 21 months later PT Having established that, in Portugal, curricular activities to promote learning of the host country language should be offered to immigrant children of primary school age — approximately six to fourteen years old, this obligation was extended to secondary school 10th through 12th year, ages 15 to 18 as well.

This decree PT , aimed at the overall reform of secondary education, makes a brief reference to the need to reinforce the learning of Portuguese L2 in precisely the year when the Manifiesto de Santander — Santander Manifesto , not to be confused with the Manifesto of Santander supporting euthanasia was signed by concerned educators and policy makers in the area of immigrant language education from all over the world.

Then, another 21 months after the implementation of PL2 classes in Portugal for youth, another decree PT on the concession of Portuguese equivalences for foreign studies at the primary and secondary levels includes a brief reference to language assessment in Portuguese L2 classes and the need for proper pedagogical support in the national school system for immigrant students. The implementation of a systematic approach to immigrant language education in Portugal, identified by Campos et al.

This dispatch clearly establishes the organisation and management of Portuguese L2 in the national curriculum in the three distinct cycles of Portuguese primary education first through 4th year; 5th and 6th year; 7th through 9th year in addition to the need for the creation of extracurricular activities, pedagogical support and assessment.

The responsibility is unmistakably placed on the schools and their respective agrupamentos school districts to effectively construct curricular projects that guarantee equal learning conditions for educational success. Accordingly, immigrant students should have access to activities that guarantee a sufficient language level to become integrated in the existing national educational system. The Alicante Proposals Propuestas de Alicante honed in on the focus of the activity that would need to be developed, resulting in a condensed list of priorities revolving around the two overarching themes of child and adult L2 education but including a third theme in recognising the importance of L2 assessment.

Despite this creation of an important national support network for adult immigrant education, it was not until two and a half years later that further legislation was passed to deal with the creation of these adult language education courses. The subsequent normative dispatch PT b addressed parallel concerns for secondary education with only a fifteen month delay, an improvement of six months in the follow-up time established in the years immediately following Two essential constructs established by this dispatch were the creation of specific Portuguese L2 PL2 classes organised by language proficiency levels as designated by the Common European Framework of Reference CEFR for languages and an assessment component to be implemented at the beginning as a diagnostic test and for purposes of ongoing assessment.

In addition to the creation of nationally-recognised PL2 classes, an official statement PT c suggested ways in which the schools could provide conditions for immigrant student integration and educational success, especially in terms of appropriation of the times in the three weekly classes scheduled as Accompanied Studies, Projects and Civics, when immigrant students should be separated and divided into levels within the schools with the aim of learning Portuguese as an L2.

In Portugal, the focus was on more procedural aspects related to assessment in another official statement PT a which clarified that PL2 students would not be allowed to use a Portuguese dictionary on their tests. Still further assessment became the focus of the next normative dispatch PT b , which provided the opportunity for PL2 students in the 9th and 12th years corresponding to the final years of primary and secondary education in Portugal to take a final national exam in Portuguese as an L2 rather than the previously required national Portuguese Language exam.

Yet another official statement PT c reminded Portuguese teachers of the need for flexibility in the management of the curricular programme to promote individualized strategies for the development of PL2 competences in learners in their regular Portuguese Language classes.

To resolve these difficulties, extra hours were attributed for PL2 classes, specifically recognised as Accompanied Studies. Initial creation of the governmental structures for the Plan for Immigrant Integration PT a was followed two and a half years later by another ruling PT b , which at last created the long-awaited certifiable PL2 classes for adult immigrants. Fifteen months after the first rectification PT a of legislation PT on the attribution of extra hours for school aged immigrants to study PL2 classes in the schedule allotted to Accompanied Studies, however, another official statement PT a clarified that Accompanied Studies no longer would exist in the 3rd level primary cycles.

Furthermore, students in advanced PL2 classes could now be fully integrated into the regular Portuguese Language classes. The initial official statement PT a reinforced the importance of PL2 class levels based on proficiency rather than year of study although these levels, with age- appropriate teaching material, had to have a minimum of ten students each, which could then oblige schools to cluster the beginning and intermediate levels in one sole group.

To date, legislation on immigrant language education in Portugal has dealt with issues in part related to broader issues identified by scholars in similar years but it has failed to mark a position of leadership. Production of teaching material has followed close on the heels of legislation so that teachers can feel supported in their tasks but the fact that so many separate rulings have been made gives an image of a slow putting together of the pieces of a puzzle rather than an organised and thoughtful approach to this all important area of policy and practice.

Further research The data collection phase which is being dealt with at the time of publication focuses on exactly how the pertinent legislation works in practice in the area of the schools and agrupamentos in Guarda, Portugal.

The four overriding areas of interest for this research project deal with i the fit between the qualification of the teaching staff and the proposed teaching objectives; ii profiles of the learners; iii a description of the resulting organisational structures and iv the assessment process.

More specifically, the first area aims to characterise the various types of designated and approved teaching institutions, their teaching objectives and the fit with the learning activities created while the second aim is to determine the actual teacher qualifications for Portuguese L2 teaching and for teaching European and Portuguese cultural competence as well as the existing certification and the available teacher training.

In a final phase of the research project, the analyses of this data will be cross- referenced with the purported intent of European and Portuguese legislation as well as qualitative descriptions of the immigrant education experience in Portugal. II Plan for Immigrant Integration Barro, R. Journal of Development Economics. Campos, L. Neves, M. Best forthcoming. Marques eds. European Central Bank.

Press release — Croatia joins the European Union. Fischer, G. Grosso, M. Suggested Activities and Exercises]. Heritage History. Wars of the Moorish Empire. The Rise of the South: human progress in a diverse world. Explanatory note on HDR composite indices — Portugal. Explanatory note on HDR composite indices — Spain. Leite, M. Manifiesto de Santander [Santander Manifest]. Pei, M. One Language for the World. New York: Devin-Adair. PT Decreto Lei [Decree-Law] n. Despacho Normativo [Normative Dispatch] n.

PT a. PT b. PT c. Portaria [Ruling] n. Schwab, K. The Global Competitiveness Report The principle behind the observation is characterised, first, by being democratic, supportive and negotiated with the trainee teachers concerning the aims, content and strategies they have devised.

It further aspires to improve the quality of the teaching of the newly- trained teachers as well as the learning experience of their future students over the medium and long-term.

Ruiz de Garibay. Juegos para practicar la escritura. Madrid: SGEL. Madrid: Edelsa. Nueva Aula Abierta Consejo de Europa. Estaire, S. Madrid: Universidad Antonio de Nebrija. MarcoELE, Instituto Cervantes. Plan Curricular del Instituto Cervantes. Madrid: Biblioteca Nueva 3 vols. Melguizo Moreno, E. Ediciones EdiEle.

Richards, J. Madrid: Edinumen. Instituto Cervantes, Madrid, junio. Instituto Cervantes, Madrid, de junio. To gain leverage from such technologies, researchers are challenged with the ideas of technology-enhanced, non-formal learning. In this paper, we describe the outcomes of two case studies conducted in two European countries, the UK and Italy, where pre-university and Erasmus students used LingoBee.

LingoBee is a free Android mobile app to support situated mobile language learning in linguistic and cultural diversity. It is designed to capture language elements in their everyday lives Pemberton et al. Previous studies were conducted about the pedagogical approaches adopted, concluding that, even if today’s students are assumed to be Digital Natives, the level of support provided to them has a positive correlation to engagement and use of LingoBee.

Further studies identified that language learners use LingoBee as a social network and behave as social networkers Procter-Legg et al. In this paper, we address the problem of evaluating the improvement of the new language proficiency in terms of lexical growth Lewis , given that LingoBee allows the creation and the sharing of a cultural-oriented, contextualized and multimedia vocabulary.

Two groups of learners were tested to measure how many LingoBee entries they were able to recognise and possibly re-define in the target language. The project developed a mobile app called LingoBee that has been used by a number of second language learners in several different countries over the last two years.

LingoBee is a free Android mobile app developed to support situated mobile language learning and to help learners in linguistic and cultural diversity.

To get more specific data about the improvement of the new language proficiency in terms of lexical growth, two further studies have been conducted with two target groups in the UK and Italy. This paper describes the outcomes of this small- scale research that has been useful in highlighting correlations between the usage of LingoBee and the level of lexical growth of the user.

The paper is organized as follows: a literature review of mobile learning, mobile language learning and an introduction to the LingoBee app; an outline of the study design for the two case studies and the presentation of the two case studies; and the last section presents the main results of the tests and discusses them. Smartphones and Tablets provide new opportunities for learning, creating the need for researchers and educators to search out innovative ways to gain advantage of their affordances.

Mobile Learning is undergoing an evolution from the simple delivery of learning content to learner-generated content Kukulska- Hulme We are challenged to think about learning not only in the formal arena, but also in the non-formal arena Schwier There are several distinctions between formal and informal learning. Eraut distinguished between the two when he presented the features of formal learning as: a prescribed learning framework, the presence of a teacher, qualification and credit, and classified everything else as non-formal learning Eraut OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development identifies formal learning as being organized and informal learning as being an experience, which is often unorganized, unintentional and undervalued OECD.

Non-formal learning has also been recognized as an intermediate between the formal and informal learning, and this has been of interest to researchers and policy makers e. Mobile learning emphasizes the active involvement of the learner, where formal learning is complemented by informal learning. These features are consistent with a constructivist approach where the learner experiences concepts, applies them and relates them to their already existing knowledge.

Social constructivism Vygotsky , focuses on the social context that shapes the construction of knowledge which is important in language learning. Learning languages is strongly influenced by situations, Ogata and Yoneo ; Tang and fits well within the concept of situated learning proposed by Lave and Wenger Lave and Wenger As ADL Advanced Distributed Learning stated in their recent report on mobile learning, “Unlike other learning technologies, mobile learning is unique in that it can accommodate both formal and informal learning in collaborative or individual learning modes” ADL 5.

In an overview paper by Kukulska- Hulme and Shield , learning activities often took advantage of what the devices offered, such as text messaging to support vocabulary learning. More recently, mobile apps have been developed to support language learning. These are often based on the idea of games and are designed to support vocabulary learning, e. Ankidroid in Raoul , or word games. An overview of mobile apps for language learning is available from Godwin-Jones , describing the current main mobile environments the functionalities of IPhone, Android and Windows Phone-based devices and the most relevant apps developed for language learning purposes, among which a special attention is given to Cloudbank, the predecessor of LingoBee Pemberton, Winter, and Fallahkhair Ideally, technologies such as LingoBee should be complementary to the activities in formal learning environments such as the classroom.

We envisage that activities around LingoBee usage outside of the classroom and the contents that are generated will bring the learners’ interests into the classroom, thus bridging the formal and informal learning arenas and enhancing the learning support for language learners.

LingoBee App LingoBee is an Android based mobile app designed to support situated mobile language learning. It is intended to not only support language learning but to help learners learn about linguistic and cultural diversity. LingoBee leverages the ideas of situated and contextualized learning, enabling learners to capture language or cultural elements as they discover them, whenever and wherever that may be.

It uses the idea of crowd sourcing and social networking to allow the learner to collect, share and annotate entries in a shared online repository as shown in Figure 1. The functions of the app include: an individual favourites list; user group view of the repository – Figure 1a ; individual entry view including the word and definition – Figure 1b ; an entry editor screen to upload new entries; a profile page and a search page – Figure c.

Learners are able to add a new entry or a new version of an existing entry through the entry editor which allows learners to add a word or phrase, plus, if they want to, any combination of the following: definition, weblink, photograph or image already stored on their phone or audio recording. All learners within a user group can view and save any entry added from their user group onto their mobile phone.

Learners are able to add new definitions to existing entries and the app automatically links them together so that learners can see the number of entries for each word or phrase. Learners can also rate each others entries using an easy to use star system. For example, the Union Jack in Figure 1 b has been rated 5 stars. Learners can also flag entries to highlight an entry that is offensive or incorrect. Figure 1a – user group view; Figure 1b — entry editor; Figure 1c profile and search page Even though a specific evaluation of linguistic issues was not a required output of the project, since this was focused on more general aspects such as engagement and interest, it seemed to us that a closer look at how much language LingoBee users learnt was due.

A review would help to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of the app from a didactical point of view, and provide indications and hints for the best usage in teaching. However, as Traxler recently pointed out in an interview with The Guardian, “Mobile learning should be recognised as notoriously difficult to evaluate [ It’s difficult to observe, difficult to measure and difficult to explain” Traxler There is also another kind of problem, as linguistics competence is complex and entails many different kinds of sub-competences, from phonology to pragmatics.

Since it is impossible, especially for a small scale trial such as ours, to evaluate it as a whole, a decision had to be made in order to select which level of which sub-competence was to be tested, and how. Trying to cope with this problem, we have decided to focus on vocabulary, in order to assess if and in which measure LingoBee was able to foster lexical growth.

This, however, is only a partial solution, because lexical competence is a structured combination of knowledge and knowing a word can mean many different things, from the phonological form to its morpho-syntactical constraints, from its position to its meaning Fiorentino and Cacchione In vocabulary acquisition, like in L2, the knowledge of a word may entail only one or a few of these components.

Usually, anyway, in vocabulary testing this complexity is considerably reduced and essentially brought back to semantic aspects — i. Returning to our choice to focus the research only on the lexicon, it is worth noting that this has given the study two significant advantages. First, it was consistent with the structure of LingoBee, because it is organized as a composition of lexical entries, just like a creative lexicon made of lemmas defined in different, highly personal ways, depending on singular interests, level of proficiency, intrinsic difficulty of definition of the item selected, and other personal describing strategies.

Secondly, measuring second language vocabulary acquisition has been treated enough to provide a set of easy-to-manage indications to arrange concrete vocabulary testing. How are vocabulary tests to be made so that they can be both reliable and valid, and gain greater face validity? One is, which words are to be selected for measurement, examining or counting?

The second is, what method is to be used to check whether learners know or can use these words? Researchers are approaching something like a consensus in tackling the first question, and vocabulary tests and other assessments make use of word frequency data and test the most frequent vocabulary.

A test of productive knowledge, however, will require a technique that can elicit vocabulary in the foreign language from the learner. Milton 20 This paragraph from Milton summarizes all the key issues in vocabulary testing.

Taking into consideration the concrete constraints of our small-scale evaluation trials, we have tried to ensure the test was reliable and valid by following the word frequency principle and by limiting our investigation to receptive vocabulary knowledge.

Methodology and Study The vocabulary test was designed to evaluate how many entries each LingoBee user was able to recognize. This approach is consistent with a broad referential semantic theory, as it described by the triangle of reference Ogden and Richards [].

In the simpler test version that was adopted for English as L2, a positive answer, expressed with a tick in the box, was enough to classify the entry as known. The vocabulary evaluation for Italian as L2 was more articulated and, besides the entry recognition, it asked for a definition of the recognized entry, in English or Italian.

This task was intended as a way to a assess if the entry marked as recognized was actually known, i. The word panel was selected, in both cases, from the LingoBee repository, and was made up of entries added by all the LingoBee users within that user group, including the users whose vocabulary was being tested.

The assumption was, in fact, that each user had browsed the repository, as in the majority of cases this actually happened. To make the test affordable, i. The entry selection was made following a broad word frequency criterion, in the sense that priority was given to more frequent words. The Italian entry list was assessed by the Censor software Mastidoro , analyzing the frequency range according to the Gulpease index developed in by the GULP research group of the University La Sapienza in Rome.

The Censor frequency analyser assessed that the word panel included words belonging to the Italian Basic Vocabulary De Mauro , i.

The following tables show the outcomes from the two tests. For each study we show the total number of entries made by each user and the total entries recognized by each user and the corresponding percentage. She was the best performer in the Italian test, not only recognizing all the entries, but defining them well — mostly in Italian. They are outlined in the following table.

This positive outcome can be easily correlated with the fact that there were words related to routine student life. Regarding the definition patterns, they are surprisingly articulated and well-structured for users at a very early stage of language learning. They show a relevant strategic ability in communicating in the new language, especially if we take into consideration that defining is not an easy linguistic task.

These considerations bring us to state that mobile apps like LingoBee are effective tools to support and enhance informal language learning in different contexts, with specific reference to lexical improvement. Abbreviated is what I meant. Official abbreviations or not though, what use are they if we don’t know in advance what they mean?

Anyway forget about that. This particular image has peculiar to me mark up which may or may not be connected to css mark up. I really don’t know. I hope that helped you, saludos. Hi, It’s my first time participating in a discussion here at Wikipedia, so I don’t know if I’m doing it right but In other varieties of spanish, i. I think any of those would be OK.

Have a good day y’all. There is confusion beacuse “x” has many possible pronunciations in spanish. The latter sound is the less frecuent, but in this case, it the one used to pronunce the “x” in “Mexico”.

I’d like to resurrect this discussion about about the fricative. But the latter is a point of discussion over there. If the pronunciation is not the same across the board, i. I know this is borderline nitpicking and only partially a topic of this page, but it seems to me I can best get into contact with the discussants here, and there might be an underlying problem with the IPA representation in this case, because the two pronunciation sounds very different.

Then again, maybe I just haven’t fully grapsed the IPA concept yet. As far as I’m concerned, all that needs to be done is change the picture’s caption, why would we delete the picture when it can be easily fixed? Well I’m no expert regarding the military of Mexico, so I don’t know if the airplane shown in the picture is part of the Mexican Air Fore or not, therefore if Homan05 is completely sure that the MAF doesn’t use the type of airplane shown in the picture, I would like him to put some references to back it up.

Anyways I’ve no intention to keep discussing with an anonymous IP, thanks to the “smart” comments you made above it’s gonna be pretty easy for me to tell an administrator to block your IP, adios. Let me see IP from Toronto, Canada , very uncivil behaviour, use of profanity, personal attacks Where have we all seen this before? He’s back. I’m not surprised since we tried to change the geography paragraph that gives MA undue weight. Thank you to Supaman89 for posting the correct picture and thank you to the guys who agreed with me.

The weather of Mexico it’s:. Baja California: mediterranean at the north of the pacific coast rains in winter dry summer with maritim influence. Last snow fall in cities: Mexicali dec. Juarez jan. Leon dec. Toluca jan. Mexico City jan. Notheast of Mexico. Very hot in summer winter it’s warm ocacional cold front bring the temperatures very low, in Mexico nortes the snow it’s rare.

Tampico feb. Gulf coast south of Tampico it’s tropical hot and humid ocacional cold fronts bing the temperatures down with wind from the north and rains. Pacific cost dry and warm winters hot and humid summers tropical and the most uniform weather of Mexico. I’ve been here in Wikipedia since , and every time somebody add an official motto in the corresponding template, we end up discovering that Mexico doesn’t have an official motto. Can somebody tell me why the “La patria es primero” motto was re-introduced?

Is there any source? Although my country doesnt has an official motto, we have in the Congress as in the Supreme Court of Justice, antologies of phrases from national heroes and other recognized people. Use it freely. In some picture appeared in this article, it could seen a Metrobus, whose subtitle says: “Metrobus in Santa Fe”, Metrobus does not run throughout Santa Fe, the picture before metioned actually describes a scene of a Metrobus running in Paseo de la Reforma.

In the map in this section, it shows Mexico City in the middle of the Gulf of Mexico. I think that is incorrect. These are not part of Mexican cuisine. I can testify the same for Chihuahua and Cd. Juarez where they are very common. I remember as well, in Torreon in Coahuila, even that this is anecdotical, going with my family to a restaurant where they only made giant burritos, at least 25 years ago.

So they have not been recently introduced into Mexico. For example; regardless of the roots and origins of Creole cooking, you wouldn’t call it French cuisine, would you? So the fact that the “burrito” as we know it here in the states is widely recognized as so in Chihuaha really only has to do with geography.

In the central and southern parts of Mexico, one of the closest things to a burrito would be a “gringa”. This dish is pretty much a burrito, slightly smaller than the ones we know here in the states.

Nonetheless, it should be noted that the name used in Mexico for this dish is NOT “burrito”, which really is a Tex Mex term. Burritos are NOT part of Mexican cuisine. My statement is based on being born and raised in Mexico. I’ve traveled through out most of Mexico and it’s very rare that someone would have such food item as a meal. I can honestly say that the only reason they are found in Mexico is because North Americans ask for this appetizer not a dish by the way when they vacation here specially in the northern states.

Demand and supply. North Americans have the misconception that during a meal in a Mexican home tacos, burritos,quesadillas, and other quick foods would be served commonly.

You can’t forget the Mexican “spoon” know as the tortilla. I never heard of a burrito until I came to the United States. Also, tacos and quesadillas are not “dishes”, as I have said before, they are quick foods. They are something you would eat when you are out with friends or need a rush meal. It’s very rare they are used as the main meal. They are more appetizers or quick foods that would be comparable to hot dogs and burgers in the US. Mole, posole, tamales, corundas, carnitas, birria, menudo and others dishes that were mentioned in the article are dishes that are reserved for special occasions or they are made every now and then as they take a great amount of time to prepare.

I believe to get the right facts abount Mexican cuisine you would have to speak to everyday citizens and not taken from articles, books, and media that are tainted with misconceptions. In Mexico, we like our meat tacos with diced onions, cilantro, hot salsas and a hint of Lime, NOT tomatoes, lettuce, yellow cheese, ground beef very common in the US or sour cream. Just letting people how thing really are from first person point of view.

It’s 3 in the morning and I’am up this late because I feel very passionate about our cuisine. Thank You and God bless. I mean, the information from those websites is considered the official. Sup everyone, it is just me or do you guys think the article has too many pictures? Well, a week ago the article had a certain number of pictures and then all of a sudden 10 more were added, some of them are fine but I think they might be a bit too many, I mean I didn’t wanna be rude and just revert the changes that’s why a openned this discussion, maybe we should remove a few of them, specially in the small sections.

Where did the numbers on Mexico’s military come from? Specifically the budget and the number of soldiers. Please help clean up the article or discuss. Maybe if you read the discussion that we had about that section a month ago, you’ll see why we chose that picture, you can check it Here. Como es posible que en un articulo enciclopedico mencionen a RBD??? No me cabe en la cabeza.

Lo siento, no estoy registrada —Preceding unsigned comment added by Is there a leftist managing this article? The section on 20th and 21st century history opens with stiff language against a clearly right wing regime, followed by positive language about the left wing regime. This data was from a census where people were asked to identify themselves by race, and many Hispanics stated “some other race”.

Is there any better data available? I ask this because in Latin America, people would not use these classifications, they would be European, Indian, black, or some mixture of the three. Incredibly, I just realized that the article has been unblocked Anyway we know we have to bring the semi-protection again to stop the vandalism, so if anyone wants to help me with it, please do.

The picture of the Metrobus in the main page, under “Transportation” has a wrong description, it is on “Avenida Insurgentes”, not in “Santa Fe”. In addition can someone get an image of Diegos Man at the Crossroads to be put on the article by the same name. I am recommending that the major site Mexico Connect, which has been on-line since and includes an encyclopedic resource base of over 4, articles and 3, photographs be included in the external links for “Mexico”.

The site is highly trusted, is considered the top destination guide for Mexico by none other than Ranking.

There is no other Mexico site that is as comprehensive and useful to traveler, retiree, business person or student. Thank-you for your consideration! The image File:PedroInfante. In particular, for each page the image is used on, it must have an explanation linking to that page which explains why it needs to be used on that page.

Please check. This is an automated notice by FairuseBot. For assistance on the image use policy, see Wikipedia:Media copyright questions. I don’t have any problem with the quality or historical accuracy of information given on the Independence War, but it seems to me that the section is way too detailed to the detriment of the complete article. I spent an amount of time doing simple copy edits, links, clarifying wording, etc. Perhaps there was previous information relating to those subjects which was edited out for whatever reason.

I didn’t have time to do a complete edit history search. As I’m no expert in Mexican history I’ll have to leave that to those who are more qualified and are more inclined to devoting the time that this important subject requires.

Unfortunately even in Mexican schools they don’t focus much on that period of time, which is quite a pity considering the importance of that period to Mexico’s identity, much of the information taught on the colonial era is focused on the independence and the afterwards, to give you an idea I don’t even know exactly how the New Spain was divided, how many provinces there were, etc.

In the following section I made a really quick paragraph to start with, so we can keep improving it later on. That was just a quick paragraph I wrote, so please feell free to expand it. I remember that in Primaria and Secundaria they didn’t focus much on the New Spain, but maybe it was just in my state, saludos. BTW, if you’re working in the NS article, maybe you would like to help us expand the section for this article, if you have time of course.

It would be good to acknowledge that slavery did exist and that the Plan of Iguala, proposed by Augustin de Iturbe in would initiate the abolishment of slavery; Constitution was created that liberty occurred; but it was not until that the last slaves were freed.

Slavery did survive in the part of Mexico that is now Texas. And, that the Mexican efforts to free slaves caused problems with the Southern Americans who had become Mexican citizens that led to the revolution leading toward Texas separation There were many issues involved in the reasons for separation. Slavery was one reason as was religion. The slave holder in Tejas was capped to a limit of the number of slaves; essentially, the Mexican Constitution had abolished it.

Santa Ana began threatening the end of slavery in Texas. There were many political groups who had there own reasons for separation.

 
 

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