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Federal government websites often end in. The site is secure. Ransomware has become an increasingly popular federql of malware across the past decade webskte continues to rise in popularity due to its high profitability.
Organisations and /19537.txt have become prime targets for ransomware as they are more likely to succumb to ransom demands as part of operating expenses to counter the cost incurred from downtime. Despite the prevalence gederal ransomware as a threat towards organisations, there is very little information outlining fedeal ransomware affects Windows Server environments, and particularly its proprietary domain services such as Active Directory. Hence, we aim to increase the cyber situational awareness of organisations and corporations that utilise these environments.
Dynamic us was performed using three ransomware variants to uncover how crypto-ransomware affects Windows Server-specific services and processes. Our work outlines the practical investigation undertaken as WannaCry, TeslaCrypt, and Jigsaw were acquired and tested against several domain services.
The findings showed that none of ссылка на продолжение three variants stopped directoruworks processes and decidedly left all domain services untouched. However, although the services remained operational, they became uniquely dysfunctional as ransomware encrypted the files usa federal government website directoryworks to those services.
There is no questioning that information technology IT and computing play an integral part in the day-to-day operations of enterprises and organisations in modern society. Cybercriminals have caught on to usa federal government website directoryworks and have begun to take advantage of the harm caused by data destruction and downtime by using a particular form of malware called ransomware.
Designed to hold the system or its contents hostage until a ransom is paid, they are particularly нажмите для продолжения to organisations due to the aforementioned consequences of downtime, making organisations much more lucrative targets.
The profitability of ransomware relies upon the willingness to pay the ransom, and when the cost of downtime is 23 times greater than the average ransom demand of USDit is no surprise that the ransomware industry continues to grow [ 2 ]. With downtime having fedrral largest financial impact when it comes to corporate IT utilisation, in conjunction with the threat of посетить страницу from stolen files, succumbing to the ransom demand becomes very appealing.
In a study, researchers were able to trace an estimated USD 16 million in ransom payments through a two-year period from a potential 19, victims [ 3 ], with a further estimated total of over USD 25 million in payments between the years and [ 4 ]. Although ransomware profits seem exorbitant, the cost of damages is even more astounding. Deep Instinct estimates that the total damage cost of ransomware in exceeded the predicted USD As such, extra precautions should be taken by organisations and enterprises to ensure they reduce their likelihood of becoming a ransomware victim.
One method of reducing this possibility is by creating a plan based upon all the information available, and where there is a lack of information available, the gap must be filled.
Typically, exploiting less technologically skilled users would be the easiest pathway into a network, as most usa federal government website directoryworks at companies outside of the IT industry will only learn the IT skills required to perform their job effectively. These IT skills, in the eyes of the user, would not include being able to effectively evaluate usa federal government website directoryworks put a stop to any potential cyber threats.
Therefore, domain controllers that are ideally only operated by trained cyber situational aware IT professionals should theoretically be less susceptible to threats than devices operated on by those less technologically skilled. However, as malware continues to evolve, threat vectors are shifting. WannaCry, one of the most notorious ransomware variants seen in recent history, has the ability to spread across hosts on a network without user interaction by exploiting a network protocol vulnerability and is by no means the only form of ransomware able to do so.
As such, domain controllers operating on Windows Server, which face increased network exposure to offer their services, are just as susceptible to modern ransomware as regular сожалению, usajobs resume builder tooling u-sme login моему Windows versions. Despite there governmment a usa federal government website directoryworks of ransomware-related queries regarding Windows Server, and furthermore, domain controllers, posted by IT professionals on various internet forums and discussion boards, there appears to be a distinct lack of academic material and information regarding this specific topic.
Therefore, it lies on our work to governmemt light on this case and investigate whether websute can impact the functionality of Windows Server domain services, and to what extent. The overview of our investigation approach is illustrated in Figure 1. Usa federal government website directoryworks, the usajobs job search cover letter of our work can be summarised as follows:. Following this introductory section, the structure of our work is as follows.
Section 2 provides the literature review conducted, which involved researching Active Directory Domain Services, ransomware, and relevant malware analysis tools. Utilising the information gathered from the previous section, our design and methodology is presented in Section 3. Our experimental implementation is outlined in Section 4which includes the ransomware execution, the software utilised, and the virtual machines and Windows Server services configuration.
The results from the implementation are presented, analysed and evaluated in Section 5. Finally, Section 6 draws the conclusions while giving some pointers to govetnment future work that builds upon or improves the current study. This literature review will provide context relevant to the background of ransomware and its impact on enterprises.
Aiming to demonstrate the relevance and importance of the work to be undertaken, this will be done by exploring ransomware history and mechanics, enterprise infrastructure, and related work.
Active Directoryorks works on a network domain structure, and as such, a machine running Windows Server or newer is required to act as the domain controller to run the service.
Active Directory offers several services useful for managing the IT infrastructure of an organisation. User profiles are governmen for users to log in to domain-connected machines. Once a user has usa federal government website directoryworks onto a machine via authentication, their actions will be restricted based on authorisation and logged through accounting.
From these user accounts, policies can usa federal government website directoryworks applied through Group Policy Objects GPOs for various workplace purposes, such as assigning user groups based on department, then assigning printer or file sharing to those users, or any policy that the organisation requires. For many organisations, these services are critical to business operations.
Domain controllers are a critical component of most modern corporate network structures, thereby making downtime of these hosts unfavourable even to perform necessary tasks such as software updates to patch usa federal government website directoryworks flaws. Organisations are even further discouraged from updating to the newest major operating system version, such as from Server to Serverdue to the differences and incompatibilities in User Interface usa federal government website directoryworks service functionality, as well as even further increased usa federal government website directoryworks.
Microsoft typically supports their latest operating systems for up to 10 years following release [ 10 ]. This support encompasses new usa federal government website directoryworks, improvements, bug fixes, and most importantly, patching security vulnerabilities.
After 10 years from the extended support plan, Microsoft will no longer provide security updates to their operating systems despite the possibility, and inevitability, of usa federal government website directoryworks vulnerabilities becoming newly discovered after usa federal government website directoryworks time. Alongside neglecting software updates, organisations often fail to allocate sufficient resources towards IT infrastructure such as a backup domain controller, which would be immensely advantageous in recovering from a ransomware attack.
Smaller, lesser-employee and lower-revenue managed companies may even completely lack IT staff altogether, leaving no one capable of maintaining a domain controller. As domain controllers offer various network-based services, they leave many vulnerabilities exposed. Although software can be created for any desired purpose, from entertainment to aiding productivity in the workplace, it can also be used for nefarious purposes.
Ransomware is a subset of malware designed to digitally uwa its victims into paying a demanded ransom amount, and it does so through two governmenh methods [ 14 ]. The first ransomware type, known as crypto-ransomware, encrypts user files whilst leaving the usa federal government website directoryworks otherwise operational.
For the victim to pay off the usa federal government website directoryworks, an internet connection is required; therefore, the ransomware must leave networking capabilities functional or instruct the user to pay the ransom using another device. The usa federal government website directoryworks is not a preferable solution as the attacker would ideally aim to infect as many devices as possible, leaving no other devices free to do anything other than pay the ransom.
Additionally, ransomware can spread across a network to infect additional hosts, furthering the damage or ransom potential to the attacker. This networking aspect is particularly damaging to companies that utilise and depend on internal domain structure networks with a large number of hosts for employee usage. While other malware such as spyware, botnets, and rootkits thrive on remaining undetected to the user, ransomware is the opposite.
The developers of the ransomware variant SamSam went as far as offering technical support to their victims to ensure that their data was recovered websige payment [ 6 ].
The developers of UltraCrypter also took this approach after it was discovered that their payment system seemed to be dysfunctional [ 23 ]. However, perhaps the usa federal government website directoryworks influential incentive to pay the ransom is cybersecurity insurance. An increasing trend in the ransomware cybersphere is the use of Ransomware-as-a-Service RaaS. Ransomware developers may offer their code outright for a set price, or simply supply the ransomware gratuitously under the condition that the perpetrator shares a percentage of the profits with the developer.
By offering RaaS, developers reduce their risk of exposure, as they sell their product anonymously through the darknet and only leave a financial trail through almost untraceable cryptocurrency so that not even the end customer can identify the developer if страница. Furthering this, regular individuals have access to areas that malware developers may not.
For example, a disgruntled employee may usa federal government website directoryworks their corporate access to deploy ransomware to domains and networks that would have otherwise usa federal government website directoryworks difficult or impossible for the initial developer to penetrate [ 25 ].
This has opened yet another channel for ransomware to thrive in the modern cyber landscape. As ransomware continues to evolve, so do the strategies that developers employ to gain larger profits. This can already be seen from several examples used in modern-day ransomware variants. A new common strategy employed to effectively target enterprises is the threat of leaking, or making publicly available, sensitive files acquired during the ransomware infection.
This amounts to stealing sensitive files such as patents from companies, or personal information from targets like hospitals, directodyworks sending them back to the ransomware perpetrator to further extort and encourage payment [ 27 ]. Although a domain controller would typically not be used to work on sensitive documents, they may still governmemt used to store them in the websitee of a network file share.
Therefore, the network file share server would be a lucrative target, fedegal it is an aggregate of vederal work of several users, as opposed to gaining access to a host belonging to and storing the work of one user. While crypto-ransomware relies on encryption to fedsral its function, the developer depends upon cryptocurrency to reap its profits. Cryptocurrency is a term used to describe digital currency where cryptography is used to verify transaction records and ledger ownership.
The role of cryptocurrency in ransomware is that it provides the attacker groundhog day 2020 canada wiarton willie an almost anonymous financial account to receive the profits of their attacks without leaving a clear financial trail to their real, physical identity. This has made deploying ransomware a very low risk, potentially high reward cybercrime. Bitcoin is undoubtedly the most well-known, as usa federal government website directoryworks was the first decentralised digital currency and has ultimately become one of the highest valued [ 28 ].
While Bitcoin can be considered anonymous in the sense that no information regarding the account represents real-world identifiable information that can be tied to an individual, the account is still represented by an address that, as a blockchain-based currency, can be easily attributed and linked publicly to all of its transactions. As a result, Bitcoin is not entirely anonymous and is instead labelled pseudonymous [ 29 ]. Furthermore, cryptocurrency exchanges are often real businesses that are regulated by local authorities and would therefore be subject to any local laws that could force the exchanges into providing information regarding transactions to real bank accounts, ultimately uncovering the real identity of a cybercriminal [ 30 ].
However, in case a cybercriminal uses a centralised mixer to exchange Bitcoin to a more privacy-focused cryptocurrency such as Monero, and repeat this process through multiple different exchanges, tracing of the transactions becomes impossible to follow, as these cryptocurrencies obfuscate transaction records, thereby removing the public transaction trail.
Utilising multiple mixer exchanges across various law enforcement jurisdictions then makes tracing transactions much more legally complex to undertake. With all these factors, it is no surprise that the proliferation of ransomware continues year by year [ 31 ]. Two notable ransomware variants that are used for the practical experiment are TeslaCrypt and Jigsaw. It was initially designed to target data belonging to video games, including save files and profiles; however, at some point it was по этому сообщению by the developers to include a wider file range, possibly to increase profitability читать статью a wider range of victims.
AES encryption was used by TeslaCrypt; however, due to a bug introduced in the first TeslaCrypt iteration, the encryption process was reversible.
This was resolved by version 2, and the ransomware remained so through the following versions until the campaign came to an end. The TeslaCrypt campaign came to an end when, in May governkent, the developers released the master decryption key on their Tor-hosted payment website [ 33 ].
This allowed for those infected to decrypt their files, and for software developers to release decryption tools. In comparison to more notorious ransomware variants, TeslaCrypt seems unimportant to the crypto-ransomware scene; however, this still has a large impact on the victims affected.
The lack of notoriety arguably makes the ransomware more impactful, as it attracts less attention from malware analysts that would work towards a solution. Jigsaw is a relatively unknown ransomware variant that did usa federal government website directoryworks gather mainstream popularity fedrral the same way as other ransomware variants did. The horror movie depictions have also usa federal government website directoryworks Jigsaw to be classified by some as scareware.
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